Thứ Hai, ngày 05 tháng 4 năm 2010

// // Leave a Comment

C# Syntax Reference

// CLASS1.CS -- Syntax-at-a-Glance for the C# programming language.
// A quick code reference for programmers who work in many languages.
// Executable code, minimal comments document the essence of the language.
// Copyright (C) 2001 StructureByDesign. All Rights Reserved.


using System;
using System.Collections;

using System.IO;

namespace StructureByDesign.Syntax
{
public class Class1: Object
{
public static int Main(string[] args) // Entry point.

{
System.Console.WriteLine("Hello");
Class2 aclass2 = new Class2();
aclass2.run();
return 0;
}
}

interface Interface1
{
void run();

}

class Class2: Class1, Interface1
{
public const int CONSTANT = 1; // Access not restricted, implicitly static.
private int m_intPrivateField; // Access limited to containing type.

public Class2() : base() // Constructor.
{
initialize();
}
protected void initialize() // Object initialization.

{ // Access limited to containing class or types derived.
Number = 1;
}
protected int Number // Language property feature.
{
get
{
return m_intPrivateField;
}
set
{
m_intPrivateField = value; // Implicit parameter.

}
}
public void run()
{
anonymousCode();
arrays();
collections();
comparison();
control();
filesStreamsAndExceptions();
numbersAndMath();
primitivesAndConstants();
runtimeTyping();
strings();
}
void anonymousCode()
{
Delegate adelegate = new Delegate(Run);
adelegate();
}
delegate void Delegate();
void Run()
{
Console.WriteLine("Run");
}
void arrays()
{
int[] arrayOfInts = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9};
arrayOfInts[0] = 9;
assert(arrayOfInts[0] == arrayOfInts[9]);

String[] arrayOfStrings = new String[10];
assert(arrayOfStrings[0] == null);
assert(arrayOfStrings.Length == 10);

arrayOfStrings = new String[] { "one", "two" };

byte[,] arrayOfBytes = { {0,0,0},
{0,1,2},
{0,2,4}};
assert(arrayOfBytes[2,2] == 4);
}
void collections()
{
IList ailist = new ArrayList();
ailist.Add("zero"); ailist.Add("one"); ailist.Add("three");
ailist[2] = "two";
assert(ailist[2].Equals("two"));
ailist.Remove("two");
((ArrayList)ailist).Sort();
for(IEnumerator aie = ((ArrayList)ailist).GetEnumerator(); aie.MoveNext(); )
;
foreach(String astring in ailist)
;

IDictionary aidictionary = new Hashtable();
aidictionary.Add("key", "value");
assert(aidictionary["key"].Equals("value"));

// Set not available.

}
void comparison()
{
int aint1 = 1;
int aint2 = 2;
int aint = 1;
String astring1 = "one";
String astring2 = "two";
String astring = astring1;

assert(aint == aint1);
assert(aint1 != aint2);
assert(astring == astring1);
assert(astring1 == String.Copy("one")); // For strings == is overloaded to compare values.

assert(!astring1.Equals(astring2));
assert(astring1.Equals(String.Copy("one")));

astring = null;
if (astring != null && astring.Length > 0) // Conditional evaluation.
assert(false);

if (aint2 < 0 || 1 < aint2)
assert(true);
}
void control()
{
if (true)
assert(true);
else
assert(false);
/////

switch ('b') {
case 'a':
assert(false);
break;
case 'b':
assert(true);
break;
default:
assert(false);
break;
}
/////

for (int ai1 = 0; ai1 < 10; ai1++)
assert(true);
/////
int ai = 0;
while (ai < 10) {
assert(true);
ai++;
}

do
ai--;
while (ai > 0);

for (int x = 0; x < 10; x++) // Labeled break/continue not available.

for (int y = 0; y < 10; y++)
if (x == 9)
break;
else
continue;
}
void filesStreamsAndExceptions()
{
FileInfo afileinfo = new FileInfo("list.txt");
try {
StreamWriter asw = new StreamWriter("list.txt");
asw.WriteLine("line");
asw.WriteLine("line");
asw.Close();

assert(afileinfo.Exists);

StreamReader asr = new StreamReader("list.txt");
String astringLine;
while ((astringLine = asr.ReadLine()) != null)
assert(astringLine.Equals("line"));
asr.Close();
} catch (IOException aexception) {
System.Console.WriteLine(aexception.Message);
throw new NotSupportedException();
}
finally {
afileinfo.Delete();
}
}
void numbersAndMath()
{
assert(Int32.Parse("123") == 123);
assert(123.ToString().Equals("123"));

assert(Math.PI.ToString("n3").Equals("3.142"));

assert(Int32.MaxValue < Int64.MaxValue);

assert(Math.Abs(Math.Sin(0) - 0) <= Double.Epsilon);
assert(Math.Abs(Math.Cos(0) - 1) <= Double.Epsilon);
assert(Math.Abs(Math.Tan(0) - 0) <= Double.Epsilon);

assert(Math.Abs(Math.Sqrt(4) - 2) <= Double.Epsilon);
assert(Math.Abs(Math.Pow(3,3) - 27) <= Double.Epsilon);

assert(Math.Max(0,1) == 1);
assert(Math.Min(0,1) == 0);

assert(Math.Abs(Math.Ceiling(9.87) - 10.0) <= Double.Epsilon);
assert(Math.Abs(Math.Floor(9.87) - 9.0) <= Double.Epsilon);
assert(Math.Round(9.87) == 10);

Random arandom = new Random();
double adouble = arandom.NextDouble();
assert(0.0 <= adouble && adouble < 1.0);
int aint = arandom.Next(10);
assert(0 <= aint && aint < 10);
}
enum Season: byte { Spring=0, Summer, Fall, Winter };

void primitivesAndConstants()
{
bool abool = false;
char achar = 'A'; // 16 bits, Unicode

byte abyte = 0x0; // 8 bits, unsigned, hex constant
sbyte asbyte = 0; // 8 bits, signed

short ashort = 0; // 16 bits, signed

ushort aushort = 0; // 16 bits, unsigned

int aint = 0; // 32 bits, signed
uint aunit = 0; // 32 bits, unsigned

long along = 0L; // 64 bits, signed

ulong aulong = 0; // 64 bits, unsigned

float afloat = 0.0F; // 32 bits
double adouble = 0.0; // 64 bits

decimal adecimal = 0; // 128 bits, financial calculations

Season aseason = Season.Fall;
assert((byte)aseason == 2);
}
void runtimeTyping()
{
assert(new int[] { 1 } is int[]);
assert(new ArrayList() is ArrayList);

assert((new ArrayList()).GetType() == typeof(ArrayList));
assert(typeof(Int32) is Type); // Type of primitive type.

assert(Type.GetType("System.Collections.ArrayList") == typeof(ArrayList));
}
void strings()
{
String astring1 = "one";
String astring2 = "TWO";

assert((astring1 + "/" + astring2).Equals("one/TWO"));
assert(astring2.ToLower().Equals("two")); // Equals ignoring case not available.

assert(astring1.Length == 3);
assert(astring1.Substring(0,2).Equals("on"));
assert(astring1[2] == 'e');
assert(astring1.ToUpper().Equals("ONE"));
assert(astring2.ToLower().Equals("two"));
assert(astring1.CompareTo("p") < 0);
assert(astring1.IndexOf('e') == 2);
assert(astring1.IndexOf("ne") == 1);
assert(astring1.Trim().Length == astring1.Length);

assert(Char.IsDigit('1'));
assert(Char.IsLetter('a'));
assert(Char.IsWhiteSpace('\t'));
assert(Char.ToLower('A') == 'a');
assert(Char.ToUpper('a') == 'A');
}
private void assert(bool abool)
{
if (!abool)
throw new Exception("assert failed");
}

}
}

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